International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) status: Least concern. This snake is listed as Least concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population and because its unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category. The timber rattlesnake is listed as vulnerable, imperiled, or critically imperiled in 20 of the 30 US states in which it occurs, including Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Vermont, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Ohio. Many southern states afford no special protection to timber rattlesnakes.
Historically, this species was found in most of the eastern United States and into southern Canada, but the species has been extirpated in many areas, and populations are patchy and fragmented. Currently they range from southeastern Minnesota to Maine, and south to northern Florida, west to eastern Texas.
Their main food source is small mammals, in particular mice and voles, including some shrews, rats, chipmunks, ground squirrels, squirrels and young rabbits. Birds and other animals are also occasionally eaten.